CHAPTER 1 MATTER IN OUR SURROUNDINGS
Matter is made up of particles which are so small that they cannot be seen by the naked eye.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICLES OF MATTER
STATES OF MATTER
There are three different states of matter: solid, liquid and gas.
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE
When the temperature of solids increases, the kinetic energy of the particles increases. Due to this increase in kinetic energy, the particles start vibrating faster. Once the energy supplied overcomes the force of attraction between the particles, they start moving freely. This is when the solid starts converting into liquid. On further heating the liquid then converts into gas.
Latent heat of vaporization is the heat energy required to change 1 kg of liquid into gas atmospheric pressure at the boiling point without changing its temperature.
Latent heat of fusion is the amount of heat energy required to change 1 kg of solid into liquid at its melting point without any change in the temperature.
CHANGE IN STATES