CHAPTER 1 CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT
Plants of the same kind grown at one place on a large scale are called a crop.
The tasks performed in order to grow a crop are called agricultural practices or activities. These are as follows:
(i) Preparation of soil
The soil is loosened and turned. This process is called ploughing or tilling. Sometimes manure can be added before tilling so that it gets mixed with the soil properly.
Seeds are scattered over the field. Good quality seeds are selected for good crop. This can be done using traditional tools such as funnels or by modern methods such as drilling.
(iii) Adding manure and fertilisers
Manure and fertilisers are added to the soil to make it rich in nutrients. Manure is organic while fertiliser is chemical in nature.
Irrigation is the process of supplying water to the crops. Water can be drawn from ponds, lakes, rivers, dams, canals, wells, tubewells, etc.
(v) Protection from weeds
The undesirable plants which grow along with the crop are called weeds. Removing weeds is called weeding. They can be manually uprooted or sprayed with weedicides which kill the weeds.
When the crop matures, it is finally cut. This is called harvesting.
It is important to store the crop grains in a proper manner to keep them safe from insects and rodents. Large scale storage of grains is done in granaries.
FOOD FROM ANIMALS
When animals are reared for food, it is known as animal husbandry.